Using a talk show structure to create a dialogue, our podcast will explore African-American portrayals and stereotypes in advertising. We will delve into some of the methods involved in race-based advertising. This will cover different stereotypes used as well as some of the different media outlets that are utilized. We mention a made up ad that a few common stereotypes. We will include reasons that corporations use black racial stereotypes in commercial and print advertisements; the purchasing power of African Americans. This will include the benefits that companies gain through the use of stereotypes as well as their justification for targeting African-Americans specifically. In addition, we will look at the effect that African American race-based advertising has on society's view and relationship toward stereotypes. More specifically, we will highlight the affect on African-American society as well as society in general. The biggest message to take away from our podcast is that the impact of race-based advertising on society leads to an incorrect idea of African-Americans that reinforces existing stereotypes. The following articles were particularly helpful in our research.
Monday, March 29, 2010
“Nickelodeon: The First White Kids Network”, there is roughly a 12 to 1 ratio of white to African American character representation on Nickelodeon (5). While underrepresented in overall media, we will attempt to uncover stereotypes of African Americans by examining the children and teenage shows of Keenan and Kel from the Nickelodeon network and That’s so Raven from the Disney network. Further, we will explore the effect these stereotypes have on children’s perceptions of African Americans in the real world, and how these apply to the Postmodern popular culture theory. The never ending stereotyping of the African American race has been and still is very prevalent within our childrens daily television consumption and can range from their diet to their overall intelligence levels. Many theories could be used to examine the reasons for this profiling, but the postmodern train of thought might best explain African American’s portrayals for the easier identification with the “urban style”. Either way, all of the negative qualities shown throughout children’s media are certainly not lending to a correct or positive image of African Americans as individuals.
Sunday, March 28, 2010
Throughout Disney films, many characteristics are shown to influence the ideas men and women have towards relationships, love, and gender roles. This podcast will explore the differences between the romance perceptions of Disney fairy tale main characters within their gender and the reality that is romance in today’s society with men and woman. These characters and their actions in a number of Disney movies depict normalized roles that have an impact on how men and women view relationships. We will address the question “Do gender portrayals in the media create certain expectations and stereotypes within popular culture?” In order to answer the question of whether or not the media creates certain expectations and stereotypes within popular culture of gender portrayals, this podcast will explore different representations of Disney characters. We will also investigate these characters based on their gender and how these depictions provide a false representation of what women expect from men in real life relationships. Our group will look at the portrayals of Disney characters based on their gender and how this influences romance in society within the popular culture along with the male and female roles within society today.
In this podcast we will be analyzing the factors that are utilized by culture industries to influence, create, and expand the globalization of popular culture within the global village.
We will begin by exploring how two particular American corporations, McDonald's and Coca-Cola, have influenced the globalization of popular culture by each becoming successfully integrated into global culture markets. By exploring these two culture industries' ability to adapt, immerse, and appeal to the mass, we attempt to illustrate not only that the concept of the culture industry is prevalent globally, but that the structure of these industries works as a medium for globalized popular culture. We will also focus on how the specific values of these brands are communicated and modified throughout the world, including an insight into the vast spread of "Americanization" facilitated by these global culture industries.
Our group podcast examined the role of religion in the lifestyles of celebs and how it is conveyed through the media. Popular culture often times sets the stage for how religion is viewed by individuals within our society. We mainly focused on how religious topics and issues are portrayed in celebrity lifestyles as well as examples of lived religion. Our case study mainly focused on and addressed the question, “How does the media present or communicate religious beliefs of celebrities?” We demonstrated this by looking at specific examples where the media has presented celebrity religion and how it is interpreted by the masses. Our group focused on how Tom Cruise, Will Smith, Madonna and other celebs framed the understanding of the respective religions in media situations. Scientology is also a key concept that we focused on for our case study. We found that lived and implicit religion was also conveyed throughout our case study it is lived religion because celebrities are using the media in an attempt to educate and convert people into their respective religions and it is also implicit religion because people have turned to celebrities as people they should follow and worship in place of religion.
Friday, March 26, 2010
Friday, March 5, 2010
and how is it framed in popular culture?", we are looking into how
popular culture has influenced the consumption of religious products.
We will examine how religion is shaped by the constant need to keep up
with culture and how popular culture has been influenced by religion.
We will look at different celebrities and products in regards to the
engagement of religion within culture.
Scharen, C. (2008). Imagination, pop culture and ministry with youth
and young adults. Dialog, 47(4), 339-347. Retrieved from ATLA Religion
This article basically assesses whether or not Christians have a constricted imagination within society due to how they relate to cultural objects and their view of popular culture. This article outlines how popular culture has been put into categories of good or bad by many Christians or religious groups, but it also says that we need to change the context by which we examine things in popular culture. Instead of placing a cultural object in the good or bad category, people should be asking who they are becoming by engaging with those cultural objects.
Kirn, Walter. God's Country. The New York Times Magazine, (May 2 2004) p. 17-18, 0028-7822. OmniFile FT Mega (Wilson)Database.
In short, this article reviews how Christian pop culture, on television and radio, is reaching wider audiences while making millions doing so. It also explains how the production values of such Christian pop culture items are controlled by the media-savvy.
PARK, J., & BAKER, J. (2007). What Would Jesus Buy: American Consumption of Religious and Spiritual Material Goods. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 46(4), 501-517. doi:10.1111/j.1468-5906.2007.00374.x.
This article studies the consumption of religious material. The authors examine different aspects and influences on religious consumption. They find that it is a combination of religous practice and cultural consumption.
Due to the success of the film, our group will use The DaVinci Code as a case study for how religion is portrayed in popular culture. This will focus more on how the film industry frames religion within the popular culture realm. This film has received much criticism from Christians (specifically Catholics) because they believe it to have many inaccurate facts. Our group will distinguish the story with comparisons of actual Christian beliefs. This will help us define a popular culture view of religion in the media.
Rottenberg, J. , Jensen, J. , Rice, L. , Smith, S. , Sperling, N. , & Vary, A. (2009). MOVIES, MONEY, GOD. Entertainment Weekly, (1047), 28-33. Retrieved from Film and Television Literature Index with Full Text database.
This article discusses the relationship the film industry has had with religious organizations. It discusses how these organizations have reacted to films, such as The Passion of the Christ and The DaVinci Code. It also discusses the surprising movies Christians do watch, making the relationship between the two hard to figure out. This article will help us to better understand Christian movie-goers and the film industries relationship with them.
Calvert-Koyzis, N. (2006). Re-sexualizing the magdalene:Dan Brown's Misuse of Early Christian Documents in The DaVinci Code. The Journal of Religion and Popular Culture, 12. Retrieved from http://www.usask.ca/relst/jrpc/art12-resex.html
The author discusses Dan Brown's views of Mary Magdalene having a sexual relationship with Jesus, as well as, being married and having children with him. The author compares Dan's ideas with his credentials and further investigates the documents he researched. Overall, the author finds that Dan misrepresented these documents and supports her findings of his mistakes. This will be beneficial in helping us understand the upset Christians have had with the film. It will also provide scholarly insight into this topic of religion.
Corliss, R. , Lofaro, L. , Neuman, C. , & Philadelphia, D. (2004). THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO SPIDER-MAN. Time, 164 (7), 70. Retrieved from MAS Ultra-School Edition database.
The article discusses how religious leaders, such as pastors, are incorporating films into their lessons to help demonstrate biblical ideology in a way that is relatable to the congregation. There is now a need for Hollywood to appeal to religious viewers and the article discusses their tactics in getting those viewers to watch something seen as moral whether it was really meant to be interpretted as so. This will help us evaluate how religion can be used in the film industry and actually please a Christian audience, even if this industry is based on secular ideas through popular culture.
Cooper, B. (1999). Hegemony and Hollywood: A Critique of Cinematic Distortions of Women of Color and Their Stories. American Communication Journal, 2(2), 1. Retrieved from Communication & Mass Media Complete database.
This article discusses how the entertainment industry has used certain perceptions of race and ethnicity to critique particular aspects of race particularly with black women and their sexuality. This article specifically talks about film translations of three texts written by black women and the issues they tackle. It also discusses how certain truths must be told to expose the reality of black women in Hollywood and unfortunately this is not always done.
Storey, J., 2009. Cultural Studies and the Study of Popular Culture, second edition, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
The book gives us a reference to various issues, namely Disneyfication, Race, Ethnicity, etc. It also provides a broader view of popular culture and the entities it entails.
“Race, ethnicity, Walt Disney”. 2008. In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Race
The dictionary is an overall excellent source to give the precise definitions of the terms we are dealing with in our podcast and provides for a more articulate explanation of the issue at hand.
How female gender is portrayed on reality TV , specifically Millionaire Matchmaker, and how that portrayal effects the targeted audience. We are also going to look at how this reality TV in terms of the Post-Modernist school of thought.
1. Title: Gender Role Sterotypes and Attitudes Toward Female Ordination
Author : Ted G Jelen, periodicals index online database.
2. Female Employment and the Change of Gender Roles: The Conflictual Relationship between Participation and Attitudes in International Comparison
Author: Max Haller, periodicals index online database
3. Title: Sex differences in framing effects across task domain.
Author:Yunhiu Huang and Lei Wang, Academic Search Database
Zurbriggen, E., & Morgan, E. (2006). Who Wants to
Marry a Millionaire? Reality Dating Television Programs,
Attitudes Toward Sex, and Sexual Behaviors. Sex Roles,
54(1/2), 1-17. Retrieved from Gender Studies Database database.
This article discusses the connection made between
reality dating television shows and the behaviors that the
shows elicit. Viewer attitudes toward sex, dating and
relationships were measured and questions were answered
about their sexual behavior. Authors Zurbriggen and Morgan
found that viewing reality dating programs was positively
correlated with adversarial sexual beliefs, endorsement of
a sexual double standard, and the beliefs that men are sex-driven,
that appearance is important in dating and that dating is a game.
Urbaniak, G., & Kilmann, P. (2006). Niceness and
Dating Success: A Further Test of the Nice Guy Stereotype.
Sex Roles, 55(3/4), 209-224. Retrieved from Gender Studies
In this article, authors Urbaniak and Kilmann focus on
the standards that women have when searching for the
rightguy to date. There is a "nice guy stereotype" in which
women say they wish to date sensitive, kind men, but in
reality choose "macho" type men over nice guys, especially
if the macho men are more physically attractive. This article
researches the nice guy stereotype through surveying male
college students and the relationship between their
agreeableness, physical attractiveness and dating success.
The article finds that the results supported the nice guy stereotype.
Graham-Bertolini, A. (2004). Joe Millionaire as Fairy Tale:
A feminist critique. Feminist Media Studies, 4(3),341-344.
Retrieved from Gender Studies Database database.
This article discusses the role that media plays in stereotyping
women, specifically in the reality dating series "Joe Millionaire."
The author states that the media plays a role in socializing women
into restrictive notions of femininity. Graham-Bertolini also
suggests that Joe Millionaire glamorizes traditional notions of
appropriate demeanors for women, normalizes ideas
about roles acceptable for women to assume and the
goals women should aspire to. The program ensured
that female contestants demonstrate sexual
purity, submissiveness and domesticity,
which the author believes is
a distortion of reality.
Popular culture often times sets the stage for how races are viewed by individuals within our society. In order to further examine this issue, our group will take a look at how race is portrayed within children's media. We will study the effects of children's books, television programs, and video games to see how these media portray certain races in our society.
Bramlett-Solomon, S., & Roeder, Y. (2008). Looking at Race in Children's Television. Journal of Children & Media, 2(1), 56-66. doi:10.1080/17482790701733187.
This article investigates commercials that were shown on the Nickelodeon television channel. It discusses how viewership of race as portrayed by media content can wrongly teach children racial stereotypes. It reveals in quantifiable numbers the race of children who played major and minor roles within these commercials. It also studies some stereotypes the commericals frequently playedupon.
WILLIAMS, D., MARTINS, N., CONSALVO, M., & IVORY, J. (2009). The virtual census: representations of gender, race and age in video games. New Media & Society, 11(5), 815-834. doi:10.1177/1461444809105354.
This article studied a plethora of popular video games and searched for trends along racial, gender and age lines. Regarding race, the article states (in percentages) the prevalance of certain races within certain game types. It specifically shows how caucasian males outweigh every other race in appearances and roles within most game types.
Dennis, J. (2009). Gazing at the black teen: con artists, cyborgs and sycophants. Media, Culture & Society, 31(2), 179-195. doi:10.1177/0163443708098418.
This article studies popular television shows geared for older children and young adolescents. It looks at programs shown on Nickelodeon, Cartoon Network and the Disney Channel and searches for trends regarding African American characters. It also examines the relationships between African American characters and their white counterparts. A number of unique trends were found including a "depowering" of the black male regarding athletic roles which resulted in an over-abundance of caucasian atheletic roles.
TOPIC: Racial Stereotypes are Inaccurate and Wrong, So Why are they so Popular in Advertising? (Group 3 for Race and Ethnicity: Used to be Group 2)
Brumbaugh, Anne M. Why do I identify with thee? Let me count three ways: How ad context influences race-based character identification. Psychology and Marketing. Vol26. No11. Pg 970-986. 2009. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. College of Charleston. 10.1002/mar.20308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mar.20308
Three quasi-experimental studies with nonstudents reveal that one's ability to identify with a character shown in an ad based on shared race depends on the construction of the ad and the context in which characters are depicted. Results show that race-based identification overshadows both gender- and role-based identification for a racially targeted ad for distinctive black subjects but occurs for both black and white subjects for a culturally ambiguous ad. Further, results show that race-based character identification is absent when black and white characters are depicted in a mainstream inclusive ad and that dominant cultural norms predominate. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Scott Coltrane, & Melinda Messineo. (2000). The perpetuation of subtle prejudice: Race and gender imagery in 1990s television advertising. Sex Roles, 42(5/6), 363-389. Retrieved March 5, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 55608512).
Scholars have long argued that popular consumer culture is both producer and product of social inequality, but few detailed empirical studies have explored the way that advertising imagery simultaneously constructs stereotypes of race the way that advertising imagery simultaneously constructs stereotypes of race and gender. This article reports on a content analysis of television commercials (n = 1699) aired on programs with high ratings for specific target audiences from 1992 to 1994
Edwards J. Whitewash?. Adweek Eastern Edition [serial online]. October 6, 2003;44(39):14-16. Available from: Business Source Complete, Ipswich, MA. Accessed March 5, 2010.
Abercrombie & Fitch is being sued by a number of Asian-American and Mexican store employees who say that the company generally refuses to hire Asian-Americans and Latinos and restricts African-Americans to jobs in the stock room so that its sales staff mirror the models in its quarterly catalog, who are overwhelmingly white. Although A&F has the right to market itself to any ethnic audience it chooses, the point of contention is whether A&F's marketing has encouraged a corporate culture that is oblivious to racial discrimination. The potential consequences of the lawsuit are discussed.
There are unwritten gender norms that our culture has developed over the decades. When people in media defy gender norms, the mass public has strong reactions, suggesting that the mass public relies on popular figures in culture to support the gender characteristics already put in place by society.
George, Lianne. "GOING GAGA." Maclean's 122.21 (2009): 47. MAS Ultra - School Edition. EBSCO. Web. 5 Mar. 2010.
The article is about Lady Gaga. It talks about her plans to save pop music from ruins; she believes that if an artist gets too much exposure from the media (ex: Jessica Simpson in the Newly Weds) that it can ruin the mystery of the artist. Therefore, making them less desirable to the public. The article also gives backg...round information on how Stefani Germanotta became Lady Gaga and why she likes to be so different from other artists.
JURGENSEN, JOHN. "Lady Gaga's Lessons for the Music Business - WSJ.com." Business News & Financial News - The Wall Street Journal - WSJ.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Mar. 2010.
This article expresses what Lady Gaga can do to the business world of music in terms of her relationship with her label, but it also parallels her to Madonna, a female artist we could also have a focus on. It also mentions how most of her music is being downloaded legally-... this could show that people respect her as an artist (she writes her own lyrics, has her own vision) and they appreciate that and want to reward her for it. Where as if you want to get the latest Brittany Spears song you can find it anywhere for free and not feel the least bit of sympathy (she is a product of a cultural industry and her songs lack originality and therefore fans lack the motivation to pay for it).
Click, M., & Kramer, M. (2007). Reflections on a Century of Living: Gendered Differences in Mainstream Popular Songs. Popular Communication, 5(4), 241-262. doi:10.1080/15405700701608915.
This article talks about how mainstream music's affect on gender issues has not been researched enough. It mentions that lyrics and music video content shows very different images of male and female gender roles.
Thursday, March 4, 2010
In order to explore the question “Do gender portrayals in the media create certain expectations and stereotypes within popular culture?” our group has chosen to look at the portrayals of Disney characters based on their gender and how this influences society within the popular culture. We will investigate how the male characters are a false representation of what women expect in real life society. We will also look at the way Disney defines relationships and the way it influences how men and women react in relationships based on these roles.
Tanner, L., Haddock, S., Zimmerman, T., & Lund, L. (2003). Images of Couples and Families in Disney Feature-Length Animated Films. American Journal of Family Therapy, 31(5), 355. doi:1080/01926180390223987.
In this article, Tanner examines the different themes and roles played out by couples and families throughout 26 different Disney films. Tanner’s research was done to help understand how children gain information about couples relationships. She found that Disney movies were a large source in how children gain relationship information and “in the majority of the movies the couples fell in love, got married, and ‘lived happily ever after’. The idea that love is ‘easy’ and requires no work …” (p. 364).
Lockhart, Andrea Fern (2000). Perceived influence of a Disney fairy tale on beliefs about romantic love and marriage. Ph.D. dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology - Berkeley/Alameda, United States -- California. Retrieved March 4, 2010, from Dissertations & Theses: Full Text.(Publication No. AAT 9964887).
This article discusses the information found during a study that addresses romantic love and marriage relationships in Disney films. It also investigates the influence of these Disney fairy tales on relationships of gender. The study found that “participants perceived beliefs about romantic love and marriage to be more central in the daily lives of women, resulting in more severe consequences as compared to men” (p. 2).
Faherty, V. (2001). Is the mouse sensitive? A study of race, gender, and social vulnerability in Disney animated films. Simile,1(3), N.PAG. Retrieved from Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts with Full Text database
This article focuses on the vulnerabilities onto society. And how they are affected by Disney characters specifically. The study is not limited to just the characters but also discusses the effects of the songs, story themes, and trinkets onto race, age, and specifically gender.
John Maltby (2004). Celebrity and Religious Worship: A Refinement. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied. (pp. 286 - 288).
In this article Maltby speculates on the possible relationship between celebrity worship and religious worship. Its stated that a close relationship between attitudes toward famous persons
and attitudes toward religion may not be obvious, there are theoretical arguments proposing possible relationships between these. He later states previous findings to show a "negative relationship" between celebrity worship and religiosity.
Sachin Tendulkar, Cricket and Indian Nationalisms (2005). SPORT, CELEBRITY AND POPULAR CULTURE. (pp. 433-446)
The key issue in this article was the importance of celebrity display of popular culture which in turn can stem to beliefs about values and religion. Particular sporting celebs such as Tiger Woods and David Becham were mentioned because they are not just athletes they are considered celebrities and role models. We would use this article to research the way people are influenced by "icons".
Douglas V. Porpora (2006). Personal heroes, religion, and transcendental metanarratives.Springer Netherlands. (pp. 209-229)
This article will be used for sociological interest in popular culture, also how the "hero types" lauded by the media from situation comedies to movies, books, and magazines. All which have involved celebrities. Do people today have personal hero's? Of course, does that influence their views of religion?
Alexandria "Nicole" Howell-Moore
TOPIC: The effect of international culture industries on popular culture and information exchange within the global village. (Globalization Group 1)
MORSE, J. (2009). COCA-COLA, COMMUNICATION, AND CONFUSION. ETC: A Review of General Semantics, 66(2), 162-166. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.
This source discusses one example of how and why Coca-Cola was modified for Chinese consumers. We will be using this article to evaluate why or why not the different cultural aspects forced Coca-Cola to reevaluate their ads.
FONTENELLE, I. (2008). Rationalization, Reenchantment and Resistance in the Culture of Brands: On the Constitution of and Challenge against the McDonald's Brand. International Sociological Association, Barcelona, Spain.
This article discusses the "forms of rationalization of McDonald's as a brand a paradigm for a way of life." We will be using this article to decipher the ways in which McDonalds brands are used in different cultures, and how these brands portray specific values and beliefs within each culture.
Foster, Robert J. (2008). Coca-Globalization: Following Soft Drinks from New York to New Guinea. 275. Palgrave Macmillan, New York.
This book explores globalization through a historical and anthropological study of how familiar soft drinks such as Coke and Pepsi became valued as more than mere commodities.Foster discusses the transnational operations of soft drink companies. Based on field observations and interviews, as well as archival and library research, this book is about the cultural consequences and political prospects of globalization, including new forms of consumer citizenship and corporate social responsibility.
Wednesday, March 3, 2010
Monday, March 1, 2010
Eric Rothbuhler (2005). The church of the cult of the individual. In E. W. Rothenbuhler & M. Coman (Eds.), Media Anthropology, (pp. 91-100). Newbury Park, CA:Sage.
In this article Rothenbuhler raises the idea of “the cult of the individual as the religion of modern society” and celebrities as essential elements of today’s environment. He states that, “the media provide the religious education of the cult of the individual” (p. 17) and because the media provides all the necessary means for practice, the public’s access to media is crucial. This article helps frame our understanding of the role celebrities play in popular culture
Charlotte Ryan, Michael Anastario, & Karen Jefferys, (1998). Start Small, Build Big: Negotiating Opportunities in Media Markets. Mobilization: An International Quarterly, 10 (1) pp. 111-128. Retrieved November 21, 2008, from http://www.mrap.info/docs/start_small_build_big.pdf
This article discusses factors which influence success of various social movements and the role the media play in this. As the article states, “Social movements and their participating collective actors start with seemingly impossible goals to create macro shifts in social structures. By organizing strategically with support from agency laden institutions, collective actors gain strength over time despite pressure from existing structural arrangements, they find opportunities and turn them into bigger ones” (p. 125). This article will help us reflect on how the media shape popular values and also how celebrities must interact with the media in order to communicate their message.
Philip Brown & Jessica Minty (2008). Media Coverage and Charitable Giving after the 2004 Tsunami. Southern Economic Journal, 75, pp. 9-25. Retrieved November 14, 2008, from http://www.wdi.umich.edu/files/Publications/WorkingPapers/wp855.pdf
In this article the resulting charitable support after the tragedy in Thailand is detailed and explained and the role celebrities play in raising awareness about the situation. According to Brown and Minty, “media coverage of humanitarian crisis is widely believed to influence charitable giving” (p. 21) and increase the level of support the cause achieves. This article describes how media serve as important tools for framing tragedy and how spokespersons can influence people's perception and action in such events.
Wednesday, February 17, 2010
Wednesday, February 10, 2010
Friday, February 5, 2010
So what are some examples of some popular culture memes that you have run across? Describe one in detail. What was it's original meaning or intent? How has it changes as new version of the meme have emerged? What might Adorno or Stuart Hall have to say about this particular meme?
Tuesday, February 2, 2010
From your reading what how are culture industries defined? Provide a concrete example from popular media that illustrates the characteristics and nature of your understanding of the culture industries and how this relates to the Frankfurt school's notion of how culture is produced. (responses must be posted by 7pm Wednesday to count for extra credit)
Thursday, January 28, 2010
Provide a concrete example from popular culture of the concept of hegemony. Describe how this illustrates this concept. How would the Frankfurt school read this artifact? What issues related to cultural power or control would they highlight or be most concerned with?
Wednesday, January 27, 2010
I am looking for you to provide an example of a popular culture phenomenon that presents a distinctive definition or understanding of culture. For instance if we think about of Matthew Arnold's definition "the best of what is thought or said by humanity" how does this particular popular culture artifact express or define this?
Monday, January 18, 2010
This purpose of this course is to explore the development of the concept of “popular culture” and the complex social issues this raises in our media driven world. This blog is a space for you to share your thoughts on issues and ideas raised in class. This will give you an opportunity to reflect on what you have learned not only in your research but through issues raised in the class discussion or your presentation.
Posting on this blog is also part of the lab day assignments related to your group research projects. More details to follow on this. For now enjoy the journey into twist and turns of Popular Culture and the questions of myth, identity and power they create.